2017) Using multimedia for e-learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, doi: 10.1111/jcal.12197.(
“This paper reviews 12 research-based principles for how to design computer-based multimedia instructional materials to promote academic learning, starting with the multimedia principle (yielding a median effect size of d = 1.67 based on five experimental comparisons), which holds that people learn better from computer-based instruction containing words and graphics rather than words alone.”
Also includes descriptions of the principles for multi-media principles that affect learning.
- Coherence principle: Eliminate extraneous material.
- Signaling principle: Highlight essential material.
- Redundancy principle: Do not add on-screen text to narrated graphics.
- Spatial contiguity principle: Please printed words next to corresponding graphics.
- Temporal contiguity: Present narration simultaneously with corresponding graphics.
- Segmenting principle: Break lesson into to self-paced parts.
- Pre-training principle: Provide pre-training in key terms.
- Modality principle: Use spoken text rather than printed text with graphics.
- Personalization principle: Use conversational language.
- Voice principle: Use appealing human voice.
- Embodiment: Show on-screen agents that use human-like gestures