Francois Bar, et. al (2016 ) describe various types of cultural appropriation strategies used in the past and present in Latin America. They further state that these strategies can be applied to technological appropriation, particularly the application and use of mobile telephony. Of the three types of cultural appropriation pinpointed in Latin America, baroque infiltration, creolization and cannibalism. Mexico and Cuba are identified as creators and users of baroque infiltration.
Fourth, we argue that just as the power negotiation that took place with cultural appropriation was uniquely creative, the experimentation that characterizes technological appropriation is uniquely innovative. Thus, as a user-driven re-negotiation of power relations, the technological appropriation process is fundamental to innovation. It challenges the initial power structure embedded in the technology and results in new practices and new technological implementations. Technology providers –device makers and service providers—then face an important choice. They can choose to suppress the resulting innovation if they find it too antagonistic to their business or political goals. But they can also choose to co-opt it, learn from it, and embed it into successive generations of their technological products and services, thus re-appropriating their users’ inventions. As a result, the choices they make will clearly affect the subsequent technological trajectory. (Bar, et al., 2016, p.4)
If one takes this appropriation a step further to m-learning, the power negotiation then changes the relationship between the instructor and the learner. The instructor becoming a guide and mentor and the learner is responsible for creation of content and participation in dialogue. The dialogue hence becomes more positive as described in the transactional distance theory.
Bar, F., Weber, M. S., & Pisani, F. (2016). Mobile technology appropriation in a distant mirror: Baroquization, creolization, and cannibalism. new media & society, 18(4), 617-636. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License , and is part of the abaporu project on technology appropriation (http://abaporu.net )