More engaging, motivating, attractive instructional materials

The Development of Monograph with 3-Dimensional
Illustrations Titled “Augmented Chemistry: Hydrocarbon” as Learning Enrichment Materials
D Ernawati and J Ikhsan Department of Mathematics Education, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Jl. Colombo
No. 1, Caturtunggal, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Authors used the ADDIE model and the interactive features of Adobe InDesign publishing tool to design the interactive monograph and exercises. Evaluation included summative and formative components and utilized experts. Great use of tested model and new publishing technology. Adobe InDesign has a medium steep learning curve but is within the capability of most teachers and professors. Should be part of the teacher education and instructional design curriculum.

Also See:
Interaction Design and Implementation of Hydrocarbon Augmented Reality
Hotman Silitonga, Sekolah Teknik Elektro dan Informatika –Institut Teknologi Bandung

Example of research results for Static and Dynamic Content

In this article the researchers have some strong results in their comparisons of the instructional effects using either static or dynamic content. Such results go a long way in affecting the use of animations for better instruction. I applaud these researchers as the results are meaningful and clearly presented.

“There is an increase between the grade obtained by the students in the pre-test and post-test, indicating that the augmented reality application developed and both approaches for static and dynamic contents, are effective in teaching the concepts described in second section as is observed in Figure 4 and 5. Additionally, the average increment grade for the second approach is higher (M=4.53, SD=0.971) than the obtained using the first approach (M=3.594, SD=1.102). Besides, it is worth to mention that the interaction of students with the application was short and the amount of taught and tested concept was high. p. 312

From the results can be concluded that the augmented reality application using the two approaches for configuring dynamic and static contents are effective for teaching concepts of the fundamentals of electronics course. Additionally, it can be observed that there is a difference in the learning performance of students when they use dynamic contents, besides better results were obtained using the second approach.
On the other side, the perception of students is that learning the concepts is more easily when they use dynamic contents than when they use static ones. Additionally, a major percentage of students consider that it is easier to understand the concepts using the second M. H. Montoya et al.
approach than using the first approach. This last conclusion is affirmed by the performance results obtained. pp. 315-316

EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education © Authors. Terms and conditions of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) apply. Correspondence: Mauricio Hincapié Montoya, Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, Carrera 70 N° 52-49, Barrio los colores, 0000 Medellín, Colombia mauricio.hincapie@salazaryherrera.edu.co
Evaluating the Effect on User Perception and Performance of Static and Dynamic Contents Deployed in Augmented Reality based Learning Application
Mauricio Hincapié Montoya Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA Christian Andrés Díaz
Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA Gustavo Adolfo Moreno Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA

Some WOWs here for the animators learning about cultural considerations

3D Animation for Transferring Technology to the Community in Rural, International Journal of Knowledge Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 4, December 2016, Ambar Yoganingrum, Wahyoe Soeprihantoro, Agusto W. Martosudirdjo, and Ira Maryati

Not only does the animation help the rural communities learn how to make devices that can help in their daily lives, but the animators and researchers took the time to adapt the users’ needs and the users’ language to the animation.

“This research aims to analyze the usage of 3D animation for transferring technology to the rural community as well remote area. The technology in this research is an appropriate technology consisting of solar drying cabinet (SDC) and sealer as well as reservoir. Meanwhile the community is people who live in Tanjung Batang Island, a small Island in Indonesia. Interview and observation are employed in data collection. The result shows that the content of the media has to be revised by using local terms as well as more focused and detailed. The conclusion is that 3D animation could be a prospective media for transferring technology to the rural community without assistance.”

Book Chapter adds to the discussion of animation, instruction and learning

Something new being discussed is the effects on social emotional learning.

Bringing Life to Illustration and Illustrating the World in Movement through Visual Literacy
Carpe Pérez, Inmaculada Concepción ; Pedersen, Hanne
Editor: Susana Rams, Inma Carpe, Garcia Rams, Maria Susana

Abstract:
“‘If a picture is worth a thousand words’ as Arthur Brisbane said, journalist of the New York Times in 1911 Fig.1 How many words would equal the hundreds of frames containing in an animation? In this equation as any other, illustration and animation are complex visual expressions, full of shapes considered as symbols, characters of stories, real or fantasies which have strong links that increasingly intermingle thanks to the new technologies and applications that the transmedia world allows. Through visual literacy, either as still images or in movement, we learn to see, to feel and re-think our reality by playing with images, full of emotions. These ones are extremely relevant in the learning process and interpretation of experiences which produce our thoughts and feelings. Emotions affect our decision making, problem solving and focus attention, features which we work on during the creative process of an animated movie or making illustrations. We present animation, including illustration as part of the process, as a social emotional learning tool and media to enhance wellbeing and work neuroplasticity; by means working on aspects from cognitive neuroscience, such as attention, transportation or emotional simulation. There are numerous scientists such as Richard Davidson, Paul Ekman or Dan Siegel, who study the affects of our emotions in our behavior and brain functions; unfortunately there are almost no existing references regarding how the creative process of images or animated movies help our emotional brain to develop and learn to perceive or recreate data. The closest attempts are the studies from professors Uri Hasson, Paul Zack or Je Zacks, who acknowledge the impact of storytelling and live action movies on our brains and behaviors. Thanks to the emerging CrossMedia, Transmedia and Multiplatform; together with books, video games and digital applications; we can easily combine illustration and animation, learning more about their common aspects and differences. Under this perspective it doesn’t seem so different illustrating the animated world, as animating the world that we try to illustrate.”

Teaching Dentistry using animation

A summary and citations:

The use of technology via computer games contributes to the learning process and stimulates the advancement of new behavioral skills. Moreover, its use coupled with the opportunity to carry out simulations of daily occurrences reduces costs and also makes the dissemination of knowledge feasible in a more interactive and didactic way (Paiva, Machado, Valença, & Moraes, 2013). The use of audiovisual resources, such as animations, has been of the upmost importance in application for better assimilation of knowledge, since it uses a language the students are more comfortable with, and provides understanding without the need to reproduce an imagined reality, and generates a message that the professor wishes to convey that goes beyond verbal language (Junior et al., 2014).

Paiva, P. V. F. et al. (2013). Uma Proposta de Serious Game para o Ensino de Biossegurança em Odontologia. Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, 13(2), 135-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2013.132.00
Junior, A. de S. O. et al (2014). Desenvolvimento de animação para a odontologia como ferramenta no processo educacional. RFOUPF, 19(3). Retrieved from http://seer.upf.br/index.php/rfo/article/view/3861/3296

International Education Studies; Vol. 10, No. 4; 2017
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
The Use of Technologies for Teaching Dentistry in Brazil: Reflections from an Integrative Review Henrique Salustiano Silva1, Rita Catia Bariani2, Hatsuo Kubo2, Tais Pereira Leal2, Roberta Ilinsky2, Thalita Borges2, Kurt Faltin Jr.2 & Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani2

Cognitive Load Comparisons

Good Abstract from Springer Publishers, Educational Psychology Review, pp. 1-27
Differentiating Different Types of Cognitive Load: a Comparison of Different Measures
Andreas Korbach (1) Email author (a.korbach@mx.uni-saarland.de) Roland Brünken (1) Babette Park (1)
1. Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

“Recent studies about learning and instruction use cognitive load measurement to pay attention to the human cognitive resources and to the consumption of these resources during the learning process. In order to validate different measures of cognitive load for different cognitive load factors, the present study compares three different methods of objective cognitive load measurement and one subjective method. An experimental three-group design (N = 78) was used, with exposure to seductive details (extraneous cognitive load factor), mental animation tasks (germane cognitive load factor), or the basic learning instruction (control group). Cognitive load was measured by the rhythm method (Park and Brünken 2015), the index of cognitive activity (ICA) (Marshall 2007), and the subjective ratings of mental effort and task difficulty (Paas 1992). Eye-tracking data were used to analyze the attention allocation and as an indicator for cognitive activity. The results show a significantly higher cognitive load for the mental animation group in contrast to the control and the seductive detail group, indicated by rhythm method and subjective ratings, as well as a higher cognitive activity, indicated by eye tracking. Furthermore, the mental animation group shows significantly higher comprehension performance in contrast to the seductive detail group and significantly higher transfer performance in contrast to the control group. The ICA values showed no significant differences in cognitive load. The results provide evidence for the benefits of combining eye-tracking analysis and the results of cognitive load ratings or secondary task performance for a direct and continuous cognitive load assessment and for a differentiating access to the single cognitive load factors."

Such a good explanation, did not want to spoil it.

Next up, what are people studying about animation and learning?

Some of the biggest areas of study include animation as it relates to cognitive load theory, animation and engagement, and tools that enable the creation of animation for learning.

Cognitive Load Theory

A brief clarification and explanation of Richard Mayer, et. al, cognitive load theory:
“The coherence principle refers to the idea that minimizing the amount of irrelevant material in a given presentation is effective for reducing cognitive load (Mayer & Moreno, 2002). When greater amounts of information are conveyed in a multimedia presentation, the student’s cognitive resources are under greater stress from the additional informational load. Intuitively, the coherence principle makes sense because minimizing words, pictures, and/or sounds frees up cognitive resources by reducing the total amount of information processing required for a given multimedia presentation. If the student has to process and discard irrelevant information in order to extract the meaningful content, then the limits of their attention are being pushed unnecessarily. There is incidental processing that occurs when irrelevant information is present, which results in a reduction in cognitive capacity that hinders the ability to process essential information (Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
Similar to the coherence principle, the redundancy effect refers to the notion that students are better able to understand a multimedia presentation when words are presented to them auditorily as opposed to shown in on-screen text and auditorily. This is due to the fact that visual working memory becomes overloaded with the text on-screen, especially if there are other pertinent images or diagrams (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). ”
Reducing Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning,
Roy Arguello, Faculty Mentor: Patricia Cheng, Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles
Winter 2016 pp. 176-185