Interview with Alan Kay, father of mobile commuting, the Dynabook

If you want to have some insight into the mind of Kay and his contemporaries, this is a great article.  He talks about what could have happened ( and still might ) if the computer had not become such a huge consumer item.

Kay has a great way of talking about the computer potential and phones and handhelds to make you aware of the fact that we are still not there yet. Kay has first hand knowledge of Papert, Minsky and Englebart.  And he relates the work of all of these great minds to great minds in education, Neil Postman and Montessori.  Link to Kay’s early paper on the history of computers.


Multimedia in the training world

I usually do not post article that I have not read fully.  However once in a while I will because I want to highlight some different uses of multimedia and animation.  So this is the abstract for this article which to me is enlightening:

The objective of this study was to develop an approach for translation of cognitive task analysis (CTA) results to training program content for operators of high throughput screening (HTS) systems. Currently, no standardized methods exist for translating outcomes of multiple CTA methods to support training program design and promote situation awareness (SA). We combined information requirements from a goal-directed task analysis (GDTA) and system resource requirements from abstraction hierarchy (AH) models to establish content on HTS processes and to address three levels of operator SA. The two electronic forms of training were compared with on-the-job (OTJ) training. Results provided preliminary evidence that CTA-based training increased operator knowledge beyond OTJ training and increased SA-related knowledge beyond operator initial system knowledge. A set of general guidelines was developed for design of CTA-based training programs, including methods for structuring components of the training program to support SA.

  • David B. Kaber
  • Rebecca S. Green
  • Manida Swangnetr

An Integration of Cognitive Task Analysis Results for Situation Awareness-Focused Training Program Development

AHFE 2017Advances in Human Factors in Robots and Unmanned Systems pp 161-172

Another look at methods that improve use of visualization and data

What do you do with thousands and tens of thousands data points and an audience that might need help in making sense of it?  Plus how do you then appreciate the thought of that audience?   These are some of the questions that the researchers had.  They investigated the use of analogy and cognitive load theory when looking at the use of data from the CERN Accessible to the General Public project.   After all science is for the public and scientists have a duty to inform and to assess their effects.

Making ATLAS Data from CERN Accessible to the General Public: The Development and Evaluation of a Learning Resource in Experimental Particle Physics, Ekelin, S., & Hagesjö, L. (2017). Making ATLAS Data from CERN Accessible to the General Public: The Development and Evaluation of a Learning Resource in Experimental Particle Physics.


Visuohaptic modes in multimedia learning

Visuohaptic is explained as providing forcefeedback to the learner while interacting with the multimedia instruction.  People familiar with gaming devices such as the joystick will make the connection to this concept.   In this article the researchers used a visuohaptic device along with multimedia learning principles and the reduction of cognitive load through scaffolding.   In the results there was a promise of better learning in the visuohaptic condition.


I am posting the link to the article, because it is well worth a full reading as this type of research represents new ways of learning abstract concepts.

The study implemented different multimedia principles for incorporating visuohaptic simulations for learning guided by Multimedia Learning Theory. This study compared the use of visuohaptic simulations to a visual-only simulation and to instructional multimedia-only materials. The results indicated that students in the visuohaptic simulation group out-performed students in the visual-only simulation group and the instructional multimedia-only group; although not significantly. This paper discusses implications for teaching and learning with touch technologies.

Magana, A. J., Sanchez, K. L., Shaikh, U. A., Jones, M. G., Tan, H. Z., Guayaquil, A., & Benes, B. (2017). Exploring multimedia principles for supporting conceptual learning of electricity and magnetism with visuohaptic simulations. Comput Educ J.

Eye Movement Modelling Examples

While perusing an article about how self-regulated learning is affected when learning with text and pictures (Philip H. Winne, Theorizing and researching levels of processing in self-regulated learning, British Journal of Educational Psychology2017), I came across the term EMME, Eye Movement Modelling Examples.  New to me, I used Google Scholar to look into this term.  Since my oldest is a 4th year medical student, the use of EMME to improve medical education increased my interest.  (September 2012, Volume 40, Issue 5pp 813–827 Instructional Science, Conveying clinical reasoning based on visual observation via eye-movement modelling examples.)  Improvements to medical school education that highlight strategies outside of the memorization and recall model are greatly needed.

Moreover, when testing the students’ clinical reasoning skills with videos of new patient cases without any guidance, participants studying EMMEs with a spotlight showed improved their visual search and enhanced interpretation performance of the symptoms in contrast to participants in either the circle or the control condition. These findings show that a spotlight EMME can successfully convey clinical reasoning based on visual observations.

The fact that these methodologies are being used in various content fields exemplify the extent that research into visual learning and multi-media learning is expanding to the benefit of many.

Measurement of Cognitive Load

Thanks to the people at IEEE and multidisciplinary researchers, methods of measuring cognitive load are becoming more precise.   Being able to measure cognitive load means that Instructional Designers and others can determine which types of animations, text, and multimedia enhanced material has increased learning effectiveness.

An EEG-Based Cognitive Load Assessment in Multimedia Learning Using Feature Extraction and Partial Directed Coherence, MOONA MAZHER, AZRINA ABD AZIZ, (Member, IEEE), AAMIR SAEED MALIK, AND HAFEEZ ULLAH AMIN, Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia Corresponding author: Azrina Abd Aziz (, July 26, 2017, date of current version August 14, 2017.Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2731784-3536  2017 IEEE Access.

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