Healthcare informatics taking big steps in use of media, including animation, for learning

Innovations in Health Education: Digital Media and Its Capacity for Front-Line Health Worker Training, Kunal D. Patel and Tom O’Callaghan, in Global Health Informatics: Principles of eHealth and mHealth to Improve Quality of Care, Eds. Leo Anthony G. Celi, Hamish S.F. Fraser, Vipan Nikore, Juan Sebastian Osorio, and Kenneth Paik, 2017, MIT Press

The major takeaways covered in this book chapter include findings that the authors state are:

  • Digital media can lower costs, improve efficiency, and introduce peer-to-peer learning for health worker training
  • Visuals and animation alongside text can dramatically improve training outcomes as well as overcome barriers such as disability
  • Deployment of digital training and online learning can be rapid and provide a platform for learning surveillance.
  • (p. 389)

    Example of research results for Static and Dynamic Content

    In this article the researchers have some strong results in their comparisons of the instructional effects using either static or dynamic content. Such results go a long way in affecting the use of animations for better instruction. I applaud these researchers as the results are meaningful and clearly presented.

    “There is an increase between the grade obtained by the students in the pre-test and post-test, indicating that the augmented reality application developed and both approaches for static and dynamic contents, are effective in teaching the concepts described in second section as is observed in Figure 4 and 5. Additionally, the average increment grade for the second approach is higher (M=4.53, SD=0.971) than the obtained using the first approach (M=3.594, SD=1.102). Besides, it is worth to mention that the interaction of students with the application was short and the amount of taught and tested concept was high. p. 312

    From the results can be concluded that the augmented reality application using the two approaches for configuring dynamic and static contents are effective for teaching concepts of the fundamentals of electronics course. Additionally, it can be observed that there is a difference in the learning performance of students when they use dynamic contents, besides better results were obtained using the second approach.
    On the other side, the perception of students is that learning the concepts is more easily when they use dynamic contents than when they use static ones. Additionally, a major percentage of students consider that it is easier to understand the concepts using the second M. H. Montoya et al.
    approach than using the first approach. This last conclusion is affirmed by the performance results obtained. pp. 315-316

    EURASIA Journal of Mathematics Science and Technology Education © Authors. Terms and conditions of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) apply. Correspondence: Mauricio Hincapié Montoya, Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, Carrera 70 N° 52-49, Barrio los colores, 0000 Medellín, Colombia mauricio.hincapie@salazaryherrera.edu.co
    Evaluating the Effect on User Perception and Performance of Static and Dynamic Contents Deployed in Augmented Reality based Learning Application
    Mauricio Hincapié Montoya Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA Christian Andrés Díaz
    Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA Gustavo Adolfo Moreno Institución Universitaria Salazar y Herrera, COLOMBIA

    Cognitive Load Comparisons

    Good Abstract from Springer Publishers, Educational Psychology Review, pp. 1-27
    Differentiating Different Types of Cognitive Load: a Comparison of Different Measures
    Andreas Korbach (1) Email author (a.korbach@mx.uni-saarland.de) Roland Brünken (1) Babette Park (1)
    1. Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

    “Recent studies about learning and instruction use cognitive load measurement to pay attention to the human cognitive resources and to the consumption of these resources during the learning process. In order to validate different measures of cognitive load for different cognitive load factors, the present study compares three different methods of objective cognitive load measurement and one subjective method. An experimental three-group design (N = 78) was used, with exposure to seductive details (extraneous cognitive load factor), mental animation tasks (germane cognitive load factor), or the basic learning instruction (control group). Cognitive load was measured by the rhythm method (Park and Brünken 2015), the index of cognitive activity (ICA) (Marshall 2007), and the subjective ratings of mental effort and task difficulty (Paas 1992). Eye-tracking data were used to analyze the attention allocation and as an indicator for cognitive activity. The results show a significantly higher cognitive load for the mental animation group in contrast to the control and the seductive detail group, indicated by rhythm method and subjective ratings, as well as a higher cognitive activity, indicated by eye tracking. Furthermore, the mental animation group shows significantly higher comprehension performance in contrast to the seductive detail group and significantly higher transfer performance in contrast to the control group. The ICA values showed no significant differences in cognitive load. The results provide evidence for the benefits of combining eye-tracking analysis and the results of cognitive load ratings or secondary task performance for a direct and continuous cognitive load assessment and for a differentiating access to the single cognitive load factors."

    Such a good explanation, did not want to spoil it.

    Next up, what are people studying about animation and learning?

    Some of the biggest areas of study include animation as it relates to cognitive load theory, animation and engagement, and tools that enable the creation of animation for learning.

    Cognitive Load Theory

    A brief clarification and explanation of Richard Mayer, et. al, cognitive load theory:
    “The coherence principle refers to the idea that minimizing the amount of irrelevant material in a given presentation is effective for reducing cognitive load (Mayer & Moreno, 2002). When greater amounts of information are conveyed in a multimedia presentation, the student’s cognitive resources are under greater stress from the additional informational load. Intuitively, the coherence principle makes sense because minimizing words, pictures, and/or sounds frees up cognitive resources by reducing the total amount of information processing required for a given multimedia presentation. If the student has to process and discard irrelevant information in order to extract the meaningful content, then the limits of their attention are being pushed unnecessarily. There is incidental processing that occurs when irrelevant information is present, which results in a reduction in cognitive capacity that hinders the ability to process essential information (Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
    Similar to the coherence principle, the redundancy effect refers to the notion that students are better able to understand a multimedia presentation when words are presented to them auditorily as opposed to shown in on-screen text and auditorily. This is due to the fact that visual working memory becomes overloaded with the text on-screen, especially if there are other pertinent images or diagrams (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). ”
    Reducing Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning,
    Roy Arguello, Faculty Mentor: Patricia Cheng, Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles
    Winter 2016 pp. 176-185

    New Job, New Thoughts

    I am practicing the profession of Instructional Design again. While at Colorado Tech and Wayne State I designed many courses and helped others with instructional strategies and resources. Now I am called an Instructional Systems Specialist (ISS). Many will recognize that as a military or government term and they would be correct. After populating the academic world for so long, it is a change. The audiences are different, the choices of delivery are different as is the content. All that is good. The military (John Gagne) was an early adapter to instructional design. Despite that there are many mountains to climb.

    Academic selfies, self-promotion and other narcissistic behavours

    Have to try a few of the described techniques. I agree with the writer. Since we have been brought up by a generation that thinks self-promotion is crass, we are sometimes at a disadvantage.

    I would add, however, that our generation seems to know how to use the word and can easily overcome this deficit. Also, having a professional and artistic value, words can be interpreted by like-minded others who will discern the “pure” self-promotion from the desire to share scholarly and research interests.

    Academic selfies, self-promotion and other narcissistic behavours.

    Instructional Design and ?learning design?

    Recently saw a question in one of the list serv’s asking what the difference is between instructional design and learning design. For me it is easy to address this because I believe learning takes place internally within the learner and the best methodology that learners can use is usually a form of metacognition. When learners think about their learning and practice reflection they can increase the effectiveness of their learning. Instructional design is based on knowing that learners need to be in charge of the learning and that there are many different ways to learn. For this reason, instruction needs to focus on the delivery and on alternative means of both delivery and assessment. Instructional design is not learning design.