Teaching Dentistry using animation

A summary and citations:

The use of technology via computer games contributes to the learning process and stimulates the advancement of new behavioral skills. Moreover, its use coupled with the opportunity to carry out simulations of daily occurrences reduces costs and also makes the dissemination of knowledge feasible in a more interactive and didactic way (Paiva, Machado, Valença, & Moraes, 2013). The use of audiovisual resources, such as animations, has been of the upmost importance in application for better assimilation of knowledge, since it uses a language the students are more comfortable with, and provides understanding without the need to reproduce an imagined reality, and generates a message that the professor wishes to convey that goes beyond verbal language (Junior et al., 2014).

Paiva, P. V. F. et al. (2013). Uma Proposta de Serious Game para o Ensino de Biossegurança em Odontologia. Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, 13(2), 135-139. http://dx.doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2013.132.00
Junior, A. de S. O. et al (2014). Desenvolvimento de animação para a odontologia como ferramenta no processo educacional. RFOUPF, 19(3). Retrieved from http://seer.upf.br/index.php/rfo/article/view/3861/3296

International Education Studies; Vol. 10, No. 4; 2017
Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education
The Use of Technologies for Teaching Dentistry in Brazil: Reflections from an Integrative Review Henrique Salustiano Silva1, Rita Catia Bariani2, Hatsuo Kubo2, Tais Pereira Leal2, Roberta Ilinsky2, Thalita Borges2, Kurt Faltin Jr.2 & Cristina Lucia Feijó Ortolani2

Cognitive Load Comparisons

Good Abstract from Springer Publishers, Educational Psychology Review, pp. 1-27
Differentiating Different Types of Cognitive Load: a Comparison of Different Measures
Andreas Korbach (1) Email author (a.korbach@mx.uni-saarland.de) Roland Brünken (1) Babette Park (1)
1. Department of Education, Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany

“Recent studies about learning and instruction use cognitive load measurement to pay attention to the human cognitive resources and to the consumption of these resources during the learning process. In order to validate different measures of cognitive load for different cognitive load factors, the present study compares three different methods of objective cognitive load measurement and one subjective method. An experimental three-group design (N = 78) was used, with exposure to seductive details (extraneous cognitive load factor), mental animation tasks (germane cognitive load factor), or the basic learning instruction (control group). Cognitive load was measured by the rhythm method (Park and Brünken 2015), the index of cognitive activity (ICA) (Marshall 2007), and the subjective ratings of mental effort and task difficulty (Paas 1992). Eye-tracking data were used to analyze the attention allocation and as an indicator for cognitive activity. The results show a significantly higher cognitive load for the mental animation group in contrast to the control and the seductive detail group, indicated by rhythm method and subjective ratings, as well as a higher cognitive activity, indicated by eye tracking. Furthermore, the mental animation group shows significantly higher comprehension performance in contrast to the seductive detail group and significantly higher transfer performance in contrast to the control group. The ICA values showed no significant differences in cognitive load. The results provide evidence for the benefits of combining eye-tracking analysis and the results of cognitive load ratings or secondary task performance for a direct and continuous cognitive load assessment and for a differentiating access to the single cognitive load factors."

Such a good explanation, did not want to spoil it.

Situated Cognition Theory

Another important area of research that shows up in the review of animation and instruction is situated cognition theory.
“According to the cognition theory, knowledge is contextualized and develops through constant activities so that it is essential to create an appropriate learning situation to encourage students to learn in real situations. Situated Cognition Theory equally emphasizes that learners should be the main body in the design of learning, the arrangement of the content and activities should be associated with the concrete practice of human society. Teachers should organize activities of class teaching that are similar to real human practice, at best in the real situation, meantime, mingle the acquisition of knowledge and the development of learners as well as the identity construction.”

US-China Foreign Language, January 2017, Vol. 15, No. 1, 16-22
doi:10.17265/1539-8080/2017.01.004
An Empirical Study of the Influence of Multimedia on Primary
School English Teaching Based on Situated Cognition Theory
—A Case Study of Nanyuan Central Primary School
QI Jia-yu

When looking to support situated learning, animation can sometimes bring students closer to reality than text only or even text and graphics. Another application is having learners as the main body, create animations and/or videos of reality.

Just an aside from the “animation and instructional design review”

Nice to see Semour Papert being given credit for his great work in what is now known as computational thinking. He inspired my dissertation topic which became using computer programming skills to develop self-regulation and self-efficacy (1998). Back then there was not a blending of computer science with other sciences. All was just beginning. Programming has advanced in its acceptance and assistive qualities, but the thinking behind it is now being applied even when computers are not involved in the problem solving.
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/04/education/edlife/teaching-students-computer-code.html?hp&action=click&pgtype=Homepage&clickSource=story-heading&module=second-column-region&region=top-news&WT.nav=top-news&_r=0

Next up, what are people studying about animation and learning?

Some of the biggest areas of study include animation as it relates to cognitive load theory, animation and engagement, and tools that enable the creation of animation for learning.

Cognitive Load Theory

A brief clarification and explanation of Richard Mayer, et. al, cognitive load theory:
“The coherence principle refers to the idea that minimizing the amount of irrelevant material in a given presentation is effective for reducing cognitive load (Mayer & Moreno, 2002). When greater amounts of information are conveyed in a multimedia presentation, the student’s cognitive resources are under greater stress from the additional informational load. Intuitively, the coherence principle makes sense because minimizing words, pictures, and/or sounds frees up cognitive resources by reducing the total amount of information processing required for a given multimedia presentation. If the student has to process and discard irrelevant information in order to extract the meaningful content, then the limits of their attention are being pushed unnecessarily. There is incidental processing that occurs when irrelevant information is present, which results in a reduction in cognitive capacity that hinders the ability to process essential information (Mayer & Moreno, 2003).
Similar to the coherence principle, the redundancy effect refers to the notion that students are better able to understand a multimedia presentation when words are presented to them auditorily as opposed to shown in on-screen text and auditorily. This is due to the fact that visual working memory becomes overloaded with the text on-screen, especially if there are other pertinent images or diagrams (Mayer & Moreno, 2003). ”
Reducing Cognitive Load in Multimedia Learning,
Roy Arguello, Faculty Mentor: Patricia Cheng, Ph.D. University of California, Los Angeles
Winter 2016 pp. 176-185

Animation as an Instructional Design Tool

This is my start of a literature review on animation as a tool for Instructional Designers.  Adding reviews of articles around the topic of why using animation should be your next instructional design tool.  Or put another way, applying animation/video techniques, storytelling and instructional design practices to lesson development.  

Key concepts found include:  Constructivism, Mayer theories, cognitive load theory (channels, modality), active learning(interactivity) , problem-based learning, engagement, student focus, discovery, analogies, efficiency and efficacy, visual, digital literacy, enrichment, simulation, performance, mental effort, multimodal measurements.

First article is an easy one.  Adobe did a study of the GenZ learners and their teachers.

GenZ

Adobe Studies GenZ

They asked students: How are you more creative?

  • Visual skills, access to greater variety of tools, etc. for expression
  • social skills, personal branding
  • Natural explorers
  • Advantages
  • access to information and ideas, inclusion 

They asked teachers:  What are the challenges?

  • technological dependence
  • independence and logical thinking not adequately developed

One finding:  Learn outside of classroom, learn best when creating, more interactive tools

Supporting this is an article out of Durham University

Correspondent Author: Artemis, Kyriakou, Michaella Court 102, Nikou Kavadia 31, 3046, Cyprus, e-mail:  artemisia2002@gmail.com  e-publisher: National Documentation Centre, National Hellenic Research Foundation

Systematic review of the studies examining the impact of the interactive whiteboard on teaching and learning: What we do learn and what we do not

Interactions within classroom.   Teacher—> student  Language of use.  And richer interactions.  quality interactions and classroom discourse.

Externalizing thinking.  formative assessment=interactive, summative=scorin

And from Seoul descriptive questioning: Pandabout: Multimodal Story Learning with Dynamic Memory ConstructionYu-Jung Heo, Eun-Sol Kim, Kyoung-Woon On and Byoung-Tak Zhang, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul National University:

Three types of questions for animations:  1.  story content, 2. visual information, 3. emotional content